MEANING OF SCIENCE AND BIOLOGY. 

 

Biology has several branches, these include

  1. Botany (study of plants)
  2. Zoology (study of animals)
  1. Anatomy (study of internal structure of living things)
  2. Physiology (Study of how living things function)
  3. Ecology (study of the relationships between living things and their environment),

 

The prime purpose of science is research, i.e. finding out about things, so biology involves finding out or making inquiry about living things, their interaction with themselves and with nature.

 

METHOD OF SCIENCE

Results from an experiment are put together and a conclusion (inference/generalization) is made.
Other scientists may repeat the same experiment and if similar results are obtained then the generalization is accepted as a theory.

When a theory has been tested extensively, worldwide and found to be consistently true, it becomes a law e.g. the law of gravity.

EXPERIMENTAL PATTERN

  1. Date of experiment
  2. Aim/purpose of experiment
  1. Procedure/method used (including control and precautions)
  2. Observations
  3. Inference (deduction from what is already known)

 

In biology, experiments are carried out on living things. It may not be possible to get a sample of test population with identical organisms.

 LIVING AND NON LIVING THINGS

 

 

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGS

Movement

 

Nutrition

 

Respiration

 

Excretion

 

Irritability or Sensitivity

 

Growth

 

Reproduction

  1. Asexual reproduction – This involves only one organism producing offspring from itself.
  2. Sexual reproduction – This involves two organisms coming together to produce offspring(s).

 

 

Birth →   Growth  →   Maturity  →  Decline (old age)  →  Death.

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