DBMS (Database Management System) plays a major role in software engineering. In each industry, from smaller firms to higher-level organizations which uses softwares, must need DBMS for data management which can be only operated by a person who knows DBMS very well. So there are huge opportunities for the people who have a better knowledge of DBMS. DBMS helps businesses to better organize their data by providing various features like :

Database Management System (DBMS)

Database Management System (DBMS) is a collection of programs that enables its users to access a database, manipulate data, and report/representation of data.

A database management system (DBMS) is a computer program designed to manage a large amount of structured data, and run operations on the desired data requested by the users. The best example of DBMS is Banking. All the transactions that take place are based on a defined software program that keeps track of all the data.

 

Concept Of Database Management System (DBMS)

 

The core of any database management system is the data itself. Another important aspect regarding DBMS is the difference between data and information.

Data: It is the unorganised facts which need to be compiled to form meaningful information

Information: Once the data is processed and made into a structured context, it is called information.

A collection of information which is managed such that it can be updated and easily accessed is called a database. A software package which can be used to manipulate, validate and retrieve this database is called a Database Management System.

Airlines, for example, utilize this software for tickets booking and confirmation of reservations, which are then used to keep a track of the schedule.

Historical Event in Database Management

Types of Database Models

There are majorly four types of database Models:

Network databases

 

DATABASE

Due to its resemblance to the hierarchical database model, it is frequently referred to as a modified form of a hierarchical database. The Network Database concept organizes data in a graph-like fashion and allows for multiple parent nodes. The network model is a database model designed to represent objects and their relationships in a flexible manner.

With a conceptually simple and easy-to-design model, the network model can represent redundancy in data more effectively and has an easier and more flexible data access than the hierarchical model. The network model handles the one to many and many to many relationships which are a real help in modeling real-life situations.

The major disadvantage associated with the use of the Network Database Model All the records are maintained using pointers and hence the whole database structure becomes very complex.
• The insertion, deletion and updating operations of any record require a large number of pointers adjustments.
• The structural changes to the database is very difficult.

Hierarchical Databases Models –

 

DATABASE

It is one of IBM’s first database models for the information management system. The data is grouped into a tree-like form in a hierarchical database model. In layman’s terms, it’s a collection of well-structured data grouped into a tree structure. This type of Database model is rarely used nowadays.

DATABASE
Hierarchical Databases Model of the university management system

The Hierarchical model allows for easy addition and deletion of new information. Data at the top of the Hierarchy is very fast to access. It works well with linear data storage mediums such as tapes.

The Hierarchical model relates well to anything that works through a one to many relationships. For example; there is a president with many managers below them, and those managers have many employees below them, but each employee has only one manager.

 Relational Database Management

DATABASE
Diagram showing a Relational Database Management

In 1970, E. F. Codd created a relational database. A relational database management system refers to the many software systems that are used to maintain relational databases (RDBMS). Data is organized in rows and columns (two-dimensional tables) under this architecture, and the relationship is maintained by storing a common field. It is made up of three major components.

Three fundamental terms are frequently employed in relational models: relations, attributes, and domains. A relation is nothing more than a table with columns and rows. Attributes are the named columns of the relation, and the domain is nothing more than the set of values that the attributes can take. The rational database model is depicted in the diagram below.

Terminology used in Relational Model

• Tuple: Each row in a table is known as tuple.
• Cardinality of a relation: The number of tuples in a relation determines its cardinality. In this case, the relation has a cardinality of 4.
• Degree of a relation: Each column in the tuple is called an attribute. The number of attributes in a relation determines its degree. The relation in figure has a degree of 3.

Keys of a relation-

• Primary key- it is the key that uniquely identifies a table. It doesn’t have null values.
• Foreign key- it refers to the primary key of some other table.it permits only those values which appear in the primary key of the table to which it refers.

 

Object-oriented databases

DATABASE
Diagrammatical Representation of an Object-oriented databases

An object-oriented database is a system that stores information in the form of objects, similar to how object-oriented programming does. Relational databases are table-oriented, but object-oriented databases are not.

The object-oriented data model is based on the widely used object-oriented programming language idea. Inheritance, polymorphism, and overloading are all terms that come to mind while discussing inheritance.

The core concepts of object-oriented programming that have found applications in data modeling include object-identity, encapsulation, and information hiding with methods to offer an interface to objects. A sophisticated type system, including structured and collection types, is supported by the object-oriented data model.

Important Database Management System Terminology

A few other important terms related to DBMS have been discussed in brief below. To understand this concept better, one must be aware of the following terms.

Advantages of DBMS

Disadvantages of DBMS

Applications of Database Management System (DBMS)

In this Database tutorial, we will learn how a Database Management System (DBMS) is used in various sectors with applications like :

Characteristics of DBMS

Characteristics and Properties of a Database Management System includes the following :

Question – Database Management System

Q.1. What is a database management system?

Ans. A software package which can be used to manipulate, validate and retrieve this database is called a Database Management System.

Q.2. What is the purpose of the Database Management System?

Ans. Major Organisations choose to work using the Database Management System because it helps the user and the administrator easily manage the data and information on the database. The ultimate purpose of a DBMS is to store and transform data into information to support making decisions.

Q.3. What are the components of the database management system?

Ans. The database management system can be divided into four major components, they are DATA, User, Hardware and Software.

Q.4. What is a Database?

Ans. A collection of information which is managed such that it can be updated and easily accessed is called a database.

Q 5. What are the types of database management system?

Ans. There are 4 important types of Database Management System, which are as follows:

  1. Network Database
  2. Hierarchical Database
  3. Relational Database
  4. Object-Oriented Database

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